Fantasy becomes reality...

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СHRONOLOGY OF TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION

 
 
...According to the outstanding Russian and Ukrainian naturalist, Academician V.I. Vernadsky, mind appeared on Earth 15-20 million years ago. We do not know how to explain it…
 
...More than two million years ago - there was a mention of the first bangles. They were made from the bark of trees, the skin of animals and bones in the Neolithic era. Metals and gems began to be used with the further development of mankind. Our ancestors attributed the mystical power to the bracelets. The bangle’s main function was protective one. The hunters believed that with a bangle they had much more chances to kill a mammoth, but the chances of being eaten by someone were reduced significantly. Women's bangles protected the family from diseases and the evil eye and protected the beauty and fertility of the proprieties...IA 00005
 
...More than 5000 BC - It is considered to be the time of the origin of jewellery in Egypt. This date is known for the bas-reliefs found in the tombs of the pharaohs. The glory of Egyptian craftsmanship was caused by the high level of product quality, as well as the unique processing of gems and precious metals. A characteristic decoration of people of ancient Egypt was a large number of bracelets.  By the time of the First Dynasty (2680 BC), the bracelets of Ancient Egypt were made of gold and silver, decorated with semiprecious gems.  Inlaid designs were developed from gems of Africa by experienced jewellers of the New Kingdom (1558 - 1085 BC). Although bracelets were sometimes buried in tombs like the rest of the deceased's property, they are believed to be worn as decorative accessories, but not as amulets or ritual jewellery...IA 00005

 
...about 3500 BC - from a variety of sources it is asserted that writing comes from the Sumerian city of Kish. Likewise Egyptian hieroglyphic writing (by about 3000 BC. E) arose, although its development is considered to be faster than Sumerian. Pictograms quickly became more stylized forms of writing, such as cuneiform of Ancient Iraq. They were quickly recorded IA 00010 
...3000 - 4000 BC - Perhaps, the first carts, driven by draft power of animals (camel, donkey, horse), that were used by people. The beginning of the history of car development man can suggest the use of the wheel, which is considered to be one of the greatest technological discoveries of mankind. It is impossible to imagine the further development of vehicles without wheels. After all, it is of especial interest, that unlike the track laying and the stepping mechanisms, wings, jet engines etc., the wheel has no analogues in the wild life!?! It is impossible to claim for sure where it was invented. Maybe we are wrong…
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...about 3000 years BC – the papyrus, which was suitable for recording was invented... 
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...More than 2000 BC - The time of wide distribution of various bangles in Ancient Egypt, they quickly gain the status of the main jewellery among women. Expensive gems were used in their manufacture, and the more difficult it was to make the decoration the more it was considered to be magical. It was believed that the bracelet not only protects its owner, but also emphasizes its status, shows how rich and significant a person is in life.  For example, the Book of the Dead says: “The Eye of Horus rewards eternal life; and he protects me even when it is closed. »  If you look at the ancient frescoes, you will notice that kings and pharaohs always wore bangles in large numbers, and some of them are depicted as modern watches. There existed intricate jade cuffs and bracelets in China. Ancient Chinese residents also valued gold bracelets and engraved difficult natural, animalistic and mythical patterns on them.  Gold bracelets were also a familiar style among those found in India, and items made of colourful metal threads and glass beads also became popular. Bracelets were found on the ruins left after the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius in Pompeii in 79 AD... IA 00005


 ...2000 - 1000 BC – the first vehicle was described, as those which moved along the guide rails, and were used in ancient Diolkos (predecessor of the railway). He was of a length of 8.5 km and passed through the Isthmus of Corinth. Carts that were pulled by people and animals, moved in grooves made in the limestone, which created the likeness of the track and did not allow carts to deviate from the direction…IA 00004
 
...2-1th millennium BC - During the heyday of the Scythians’, Greeks’ and Romans’ civilization, bracelets worn on the upper part of the arm were widespread. For example, a pair of ancient Greek gold bangles of the 1st century BC is in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens, it is enamelled and carved vine leaves and spirals, inlaid with pomegranates and amethyst.  The Greeks wore bangles as a symbol of military prowess; this tradition (like the colossal cultural heritage) was subsequently borrowed by the Romans from the Greeks. The ancient Greeks attached great importance to bangles, because warriors wore them to protect their wrists from the swords of the enemy. Bracelets were made of thick leather and were often supplemented with metal elements.  Luxury in those days was censured. Wearing a large amount of jewellery was considered the height of indecency, especially for a man.  In contrast, the wealthy Romans loved serpentine-gold twisted bangles... IA 00005


...201-120 BC - One of the few extant reports of ancient inventors efforts who worked on the problem of transmission of information - an excerpt from the tenth book of "Universal History" of the famous Greek historian and commander Polybius…
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...II-I century BC - We can consider works of Aristotle, who described the transmission of messages along the "grand canal", later called "The Great Silk Road", as one of the first mention about the targeted transfer of information through symbolic and written signs. We can assume that special people were engaged with the delivery of mail in various ways: in Persia – there were sheds with their own staff, in Greece - walking messengers, in the Roman Republic - a special "cursors and tabelarii" which carried the clay tablets with applied a wax coating on them, on which symbols and letters were inscribed...
 
…II - I century BC - Greek infantry, like warriors of ancient Rome wore bronze cuirasses. These cuirasses had the shape of the muscular human body, what much reinforced a structure, as these changes of section played a role of improvised stiffeners…
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...45 BC - one of the first mentions about using carrier pigeons (at the siege of Modena). Man is alleged domesticated pigeons in Egypt about 5,000 years ago. And no wonder that probably here in Egypt a person for the first time was able to use a strong fidelity of pigeons to their homesite, their excellent flying qualities and the ability to know their way around, for example, the sea. A very long time ago pigeons have been used in Japan, and Greece. There is, for example, mention relating to the XVI century BC that the pigeons were used for sending messages from the field of military sports. About pigeons as messengers mention Roman writers such as Cato, Columella and others… 
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…The first mention of robots is encountered since antiquity...
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...The end of the V century - bangles giving energy to transformations are becoming widespread.  Many Greeks wear combo’s kin bangles on their left hand. As a rule, they don’t take them off and wear them for years, or more to the point, - all their lives.  The combo’s kin presented by relatives and close people are especially valuable; such a gift means special respect, reverence, the wish for prosperity, good health.  All of 30 knots are symbols of great strength and faith.  The magical power of the bangles is associated with the features of the technology of its manufacture.  A real combo’s kin is made in monasteries by monks and novices, who, before tying each knot, neatly twisting the strings, say prayers.  Therefore, each interweaving and the bracelet itself are blessed with prayers, which are enhanced by the energy of holiness and spiritual purity.  The bracelets made by the monks of Athos are especially valuable... IA 00005

 

…IX - XIII century - the main and almost the only knight armor was chain mail or scales and helmet. Believed that they were not as effective as the cuirass, and quite uncomfortable because of the weight, but still allowed to reduce losses in the melee. Especially worth mentioning samurai armor. In the future, the armor came and went many times; various options of cuirasses, shell, chain mail and armor replaced each other. Firearms strongly undermined the position of armor…IA 00006


...In 1100-1200 - messaging during the Mongol invasion is considered to be unique. Organization of communication was a system of postal parking - yams, located along the main roads, which were located at a distance of 15-20 km from each other, within a day of horse transport, and were guarded by Special Forces. Messengers were supplied with Khan's label "Paiza" - a silver or bronze (depending on rank) plate measuring approximately 3 by 6 inches, with an indication of its owner data. Presentation of "Paiza" aloowed unimpeded movement on roads, passing outposts, get food, lodging and replacing the required number of horses in the "yams". We can assume that the organization of such a relationship was very effective for the time …
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...XII — XIII century - During excavations near Old Ryazan a silver bangle depicting animals and birds was found.  Such things were worn on the left hand, probably closer to the heart.  Interesting jewellery is a bracelet with the magic name “love bondage”, which appeared a little later. "The bondage" is two rings connected by a chain with a lock in the shape of a heart.  They put them on one arm: the first ring on the wrist, the second - closer to the elbow.  It can be assumed that in this way this decoration was demonstrated only to the the chosen one...IA 00005
 
 
...1350 – Stained glass in the window of "Freiburger Münster" - one of the first mentions of the railway…
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...The end of the XV century - the first prototypes of a coach springs - durable leather belts, on which the coach body was suspended. It is known that a coach was received as a gift by the French king Charles VII in 1457 from the King of Hungary Vladislav V…
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 ...1495 - the first drawing of a humanoid robot was made by Leonardo da Vinci. Perheps, NASA experts have used the ideas of Leonardo da Vinci at the creation of manipulators; for example, in the preparation of missions to the Moon…

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...1515 - the description of "Reisezug" - secret cable car used in Hohensalzburg Castle in Austria. Cable car was moved on wooden rails, which pulled animals by the means of hemp ropes and treadmill... 
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...the beginning of the XVII century - the multiseat public transport — stagecoaches arose. During the day they covered a distance of 40-50 km, and in the XVIII century - 100-150 km…
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...XVII century - about 200 hire carriages arose in 1652 in London. Already by 1718 the number of them had increased to 800. In France, such carriages called Fiacre…
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...1662 - on the streets of Paris man can see "Omnibus" (Lat. "Carriage for all") - large carts, transporting everyone for small fee. Each passenger had his seat, and omnibuses stopped anywhere at the request of the passenger…
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...The beginning of the XVIII century - With a light hand of French jewellers a bracelet becomes a real luxury item. They began to make them of gold and decorate around the edges with pearls in Paris.  European women have revived bracelets as common fashion accessories.  They wore ribbons and thin bracelets, often several.  Chain bracelets became stylish accessories, especially in the XIX century; they were decorated with ivory and coral.  The Victorian-style bracelet became popular, with hanging medallions and engraved charms...IA 00005
 
 
...In 1769 - the first steam-powered vehicle for the French Army. It is believed that it was one of the first vehicle where a mechanical engine to drive the self-propelled vehicle (prime mover) was used. However, there is a mention that Fernand Verbier, a member of a Jesuit mission in China, built a car before Kunio - in 1762…
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...80th XVIII century - Ivan Kulibin created a three-wheel carriage with pedal power. He used nodes that man use for present days: the flywheel, the mechanical brake, gearbox and bearings… 
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...1783 - the Montgolfier brothers launched the first balloon…
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...1801 - the first steam locomotive and railroad ring, to show his work. However, the railway engine could not maintain the required steam pressure for a long time and therefore was a little of practical use...
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...The beginning of the XIX century - bracelets are adorned with coral, diamonds and gold satin ribbons.  A bracelet, woven from ribbons, was considered a special chic in high society. New technologies have significantly expanded the range of materials used to make bracelets.  Bracelets made of special types of plastic, which can imitate the surface of any material, are quite popular.  Due to its round shape a bracelet, like a ring, is considered a symbol of marriage and marital fidelity for many nations...IA 00005
 
 
...1801 - the first push-bicycle, a "machine for walking" was created. This vehicle is considered to be the ancestor of bicycles and motorcycles… 
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...1826 - as an example of the original application of communication system coding. We do not know exactly how widespread was this communication system (letters of the alphabet coding), but nowadays it has found an unexpected application. Revolutionaries incarcerated in the royal prisons, starting with the Decembrists, were communicating by tapping using the original method. On the wall of the chamber was written Russian alphabet that was divided into six columns by six letters in each column. Prisoner tapped first number of column, then the number of letter in it, and so, letter by letter passed to comrades the necessary information. Perhaps this method was invented under the direct influence of Polybius books that were quite popular among many of the Decembrists, who had a classical education…
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…1840-s - the development of a special vest. However, bulletproof vest itself was still the way off...
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...The middle of the 19th century - The engraving of portraits on bracelets was in fashion. They were made in the form of medallions and were called "centimes»...IA 00005


...1856 - horse omnibus was put on the rails, which helped to increase its capacity and speed. In Russia, this type of transport was called "Konka". It is mentioned that for the first time it appeared in St. Petersburg… 
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…1866 - one of the prototype of the modern vest was adopted by Koreans - the so-called "soft body armor." Unfortunately, is not a good example…

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...1875 — in one of the temples in India was detected treatise "Vimanika Shastra", written in the IV century BC based on even earlier texts. Before the eyes of the astonished scientists the ancient detailed descriptions of strange flying machines appeared, that was amazingly perfect in their technical performance. Devices were called "vimanas" and had a number of striking qualities, among which there are the 32 secrets that make "Vimana" still a formidable weapon…
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…beginning of 1880 - at the autopsy the doctors found that the bullet that hit a folded silk handkerchief stuck in the tissue and didn’t reach a body. This case has been described, and in consequence, the engineers used the doctor’s notes, one of which can rightly be considered the inventor of the modern bulletproof vest…
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...1885 — the beginning of aerodynamic experiments with the first aircraft - improvised gliders… 
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...19th century - Bracelets with garnets supplemented with pearls are in fashion.  Gold bracelets with pendants are also widely used. The famous novel by Alexander Dumas describes in detail the decoration of the Queen, the loss of which could lead to an undesirable war between the monarchs...IA 00005
 
 
...1885 - three-wheeled vehicle of Karl Benz - "carriage with petrol engine"...
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...1890 - the first "Mercedes" - the prototype of the modern car with a simple body, is intended to participate in road racing…
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...1891 - "Panhard" laid the foundation for the construction of light vehicle, which was to become almost universal for sixty following years: the engine located on the front and rear wheel drive...
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...1898 - in Egyptian tomb was found a wooden model, which resembles a glider, dated about 200 BC. Subsequently, the find was recognized a model of the aircraft. We hope a lot of people heard about this amazing fact…
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...the beginning of the twentieth century - the fact of studying the fundamentals of neuro-computer interfaces, is rooted in I.P.Pavlov's doctrine of conditioned reflexes and the regulating role of the cerebral cortex...IA 00015
 
 
...1903 - the Wright brothers launched the first driven aircraft equipped with an engine…
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...The beginning of the 20th century - The development of technology led to the concept of seasonality in fashion for various jewellery...IA 00005

...1907 - the first controlled flight of helicopter with pilot was held…
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...1918-1920 – carts was actively used in Russia - mobile platforms for machine gun. These guns demoralized the enemy troops, spread the fear and panic...
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...1920 - rough designs of the late XIX century gave way to clean lines of the Art Deco period. Designers began to add Bakelite and plastic to jewellery and by 1930 plastic bracelets had become an integral attribute of the wardrobe of teenage girls. Further, exquisite bracelets made of gilded brass or silver plated become very popular among women...IA 00005
 
 
...1928 - the first car with a jet engine was launched…
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...1929 - methods of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) developed by scientist Hans Berger...IA 00015
 
 
...1929 - the first glider with a jet engine was launched… 
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...In 1930 - appeared transmitters that a person could wear on his or her back or hold in his or her hands; in particular, they were used for immediate reports on-the-spot. However, the connection with automatic telephone exchanges has not provided such communications…
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...1935 - Russian scientist P.K.Anokhin in his works showed "... that the feedback principle plays a decisive role in regulating both the highest adaptive reactions of a person and his internal environment". As a result, the theory of functional systems was developed, the potential for using it in neuro-computer interfaces is far from exhausted...IA 00015
 
 
…1938 - in service of the Workers' and Peasants' Red Army entered the first experimental steel breastplate (SB). As the name implies, it protected the soldier only at the front (chest, stomach and groin). Due to savings on the protection of the back the opportunity to increase the thickness of the steel sheet, without overloading fighter arose. Weaknesses of this solution revealed itself during the Finnish company, and in 1941 the development and production of breastplate CH-42 (SB-2) started…IA 00006
 
 
...the end of the 1930s - US military began using portable radios known as "walkie-talkies". They weighed 11kg and worked within a radius of about 5 miles...Article 7
 
...the early 1940s - researchers at "Bell Labs", including Amos Joel Jr., Ray Young and D. Ring, developed a system that allowed callers to talk and transmit data while moving. This technology provided connecting to different cell towers as the location changed...Article 7
 

...1943 – Astonishing inventions of the Soviet scientist and inventor, who proposed the idea of "Monophonic"… 
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...1943 - the first steps in the field of artificial neural networks. Scientists V.McCalach and V.Pits have shown that it is possible to implement algorithms of logical functions for recognizing spatial images with the help of threshold neural elements...IA 00015
 
 
...1946 - "Bell Systems" introduced the world's first mobile service in St. Louis, Missouri.  Initially, the offer attracted the attention of only 5,000 customers who made approximately 30,000 calls per week. This system was not particularly convenient (at least by today's standards).  Calls were made with the help of the operator, and in other areas it was impossible to use the service. Those phones weighed 36 kg and the service cost $15 per month, not including the cost of local calls (30-40 cents).  Only three subscribers could use the service at the same time...Article 7
 
 
...In 1946 - engineers have developed a telephone system from a moving car with urban network; the mobile device thereof had a capacity of just 1 watt and fits under the instrument panel. Power has been supplied from a car battery. This system was a kind of radio tube. In the course of experiments conducted in Moscow the range of the unit for more than 20 km was reached. The conversation with Odessa with excellent hearing was carried out. In the future, the inventors have worked to increase the radius of the base station up to 150 km...IA 00010
 
 
...1946 - the writer and artist Chester Gould in his comics about Dick Tracy invented and drew a device for two-way radio communication, which was worn on the wrist like a clock. This device has become the main feature of the comic book and, of course,  aroused keen interest among the public...Article 7
 
 
...1947 - the principle of hexagonal cells for mobile telephony is proposed…
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...1949 – The device on the basis of walkie-talkie was developed, which was called "wireless remote telephone." It was possible to carry around the device, and it gave the signal to the owner to come to the phone. It is believed that it was the first prototype of a simple pager... 
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...1949 – an original rule of mathematics, which became the basis for training a number of networks and algorithms of neural connections, was proposed...IA 00015
 
 
...early 1950s - there were suggestions (scientific and pseudo-scientific) that EEG (electroencephalography) can also be used to read thoughts or to control external devices directly. Such use of the EEG was called the brain-computer interface (BCI), and in the Russian literature - the neuro-computer interface (NCI). A number of scientists have repeatedly attempted to control devices with the help of EEG (Dewan 1967, Vidal 1973), and the interest of the general public in this direction is permanently fuelled by fantastic films using analogues of this interface, for example, the films "Johnny Mnemonic", "Matrix", "X-Man" and many others...IA 00015
 
 
...1950 - start of introducing the idea of using satellites in orbit of the Earth for positioning.  It is a fragment of a huge puzzle - the location of objects. Other key components include computing devices with management addresses and medium access (MAC addresses)  providing a unique identifier for the machine; IP addresses that locate the device on the Internet;  Ethernet address indicating the location of the device in the local area network (LAN); radio frequency tags and other similar sensors connecting the physical and virtual worlds...Article 7
 
 
...1952 — in India the text "Vimanika Shastra" was published, which is issued for an ancient manual Aeronautics. The question is whether all is truly translated…
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...the mid-1950s - arising from packet networks the initial "Advanced Research and Development Management Network" turned from a very modest project into an IP protocol network (IP establishes a virtual channel between devices or systems).  Successful technical developments led many non-governmental organisations to demand that the Internet be open. A new era began after the US government decommissioned the network known as the "National Science Foundation Network". The foundation of global communication was laid. The first Internet connections were made mainly using a modem (via a telephone line) and the "Mosaic" browser, which was developed by Mark Andreessen (his company later became known as "Netscape"). The "Mosaic" browser was based on the earlier inventions of Tim Berners-Lee, a graduate of Oxford University who later worked at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. He invented the first web browser, "WorldWide Web" (later renamed "Nexus"), which was used in 1990 on the most powerful at that time "NeXT" computer...Article 7


...1957 – the amazing thing - portable radio of the size of a matchbook and weighing just 50 grams is demonstrated, which works without changing the power during 50 hours and provides communication at a distance of two kilometers - quite a match for the goods of the XXI century, which can be seen in the displays of the current mobile shops. Pictures from magazines of that time man can find on the net. At the same time the Soviet inventor not only has done without microcircuits, which at that time simply didn’t exist, but used miniature lamps... 
...1957 - the concept of a "technology implementation curve" was introduced into the scientific world.  Scientists from Iowa State University (USA) Joe Bohlen, George Beale, and Everett Rogers came up with the idea that any new product or solution moves along a relatively predictable path that looks like a Gaussian curve. The very first technology developers are called innovators, at the second stage pioneers appear, followed by the masses, and already by the masses - followers. Such a scheme was quickly adopted, and it still works, although at the beginning of the XXI century this life cycle accelerated significantly. In some cases (for example, the Internet of Things), this scheme fits into several months instead of several years...Article 7
 
 
...1957 - Certificate of Authorship for "radiophone" was obtained. Through the automated telephone station through this device it was possible to connect to any subscriber of telephone network to the extent of work of the transmitter "radiophone". By that time, first valid set of equipment, showing the principle of operation "radiophone", named inventor "LC-1", was also ready (the first sample, made of Leonid Kupriyanovich). It is surprising how well a scientist more than half a century ago imagined how widely enter the mobile phone in our daily lives. "Taking alone such a radiophone, you take essentially an ordinary telephone, but without wires" - he would write a few years later. "Wherever you are, you can be always found on the phone, for this purpose it is enough to dial from any landline (even from a pay phone) a known number on your radiophone. You have in your pocket the phone rings, and then you start talking. If necessary, you can directly from the tram, trolley and bus to dial any city number, call "ambulance", fire or emergency vehicle or connect with home..." It's hard to believe that these words were written by a man who has not been in the 21st century. However, for L.Kupriyanovich there was no need to travel in the future. He built it...
 
...the beginning of the 1960s - the study of a neural network model, later called a "perceptron"...IA 00015
 
 
...In the beginning of 1970 – is the most interesting data on hypnopedia - methods of human learning in a dream, in which, in particular, the problem of "recording" information into the subconscious during a special "sleep at the information level" considered, are published. To introduce the human to the condition of such a dream Soviet scientist creates a machine "Ritmoson", and puts forward the idea of a new service - mass education of people in a dream on the phone, wherein bio-currents of people control sleep devices through the central computer. Subsequently, the unit "Ritmoson" mainly positioned as a device for the correction of sleep disorders. According to current estimates, there are too many ethical problems and present human society is clearly not ready for mass application of such technologies... 
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...1961 - Spaceship Vostok 1 delivered of the first human in space…
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…1965 - the emergence of highly durable material kevlar and special ceramics, made it possible to start the production of body armor that allows to actually protect soldiers from bullets…
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...1968 - the work of N. P. Bekhtereva on the decoding of mental activity brain codes, continuing to the present time, including from the perspective of neurocybernetics, has been published...IA 00015
 
 
 ...1969 - the analysis of single-layer perceptrons conducted by scientists showed the inherent limitations associated with the impossibility of representing "excluding or" such networks, which played a negative role for the further development of research in the field of neural networks...IA 00015
 
 

...1969 - landing of the first managed spacecraft on the Moon…
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...1960-1970 - first steps in conceptual studies of scanners were made from the beginning of the construction of human-like mechanisms (robots). In the following, concepts were developed in different directions - from the security sector to echo sounders of the industrial areas...

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...1970s - studies of the neuro-computer interface. After years of experimentation on animals, the first devices capable of transferring biological information from the human body to the computer were implanted into the human body. With the help of these devices it was possible to regenerate the damaged functions of hearing, vision, and also lost motor skills (for example, auditory implant). The success of the NCI is based on the ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt (the property of plasticity), through which the implanted device can serve as a source of biological information...IA 00015
 
 
...1970s - algorithms for reconstruction of motions from signals of neurons of the motor cortex that control motor functions (based on Wikipedia materials) have been developed. The researchers found that monkeys can learn quickly to control the reaction rate of individual neurons in the primary motor cortex of the brain selectively, using the closed positioning of operations, the training method of punishment and rewards...IA 00015

 

...1970-1980 - the emergence of «retro-future», or a vision of the future through the eyes of past generations. A typical example of this phenomenon - is a kind of cities of the future and lunar bases, that are painted by the pioneers of the second half of the previous century...
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...1973 - "Motorola" engineer Martin Cooper made his first call from a modern mobile phone in the streets of New York.  This device, weighing a little more than a kilogram, with a battery for 20 minutes of charge, resembled a giant brick with an antenna sticking out of it.  Another ten years passed before mobile phones hit the consumer market. The first available mobile phone, "Motorola DynaTAC", costs about $4,000...Article 7
 
...1973 – is considered to be the described fact of the first call – the head of mobile communications of one of the largest companies, walking in the centre of Manhattan, decided to call on the mobile phone. And who do you think he called – his arch-rival. The mobile phone was like a brick, which weighed more than a kilogram, and worked in talk mode only half an hour...
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...the mid-1970s - the first 5.25-inch floppy disks appeared, and the amount of information stored increased to 110 kilobytes. The process of transferring data from one diskette to another was slow and inconvenient according to today's standards. In addition, the capabilities of these storage media were extremely limited.  Firstly, they were bulky.  The first discs are as much as 8 inches in diameter. In addition, only 80 kilobytes of data could be stored on floppy disks (this is approximately 40 pages of text without formatting)...Article 7 
 
...the 1970-1980s - is considered to be the beginning of the second wave of the digital revolution, which began with the spreading of computers. It is also called the beginning of the "Internet of Things". According to its concept, technology makes old posts unnecessary but at the same time leads to the emergence of new activities. New technologies will affect absolutely everything from voting procedures in elections to visiting restaurants and ways to spend vacations. Obviously we cannot escape global techno centrism. People will live in automated homes, they will drive smart cars on connected roads and do shopping in fully interactive stores (see article 6). Mankind will start using medications and preventive drugs that will fundamentally change the approach to health. This will lead to the development of the "Internet of Everything" followed by the "Internet of a Man".  Perhaps this will contribute to the understanding of the Noosphere, as V.I. Vernadsky wrote about it...Article 7
 
...1978 - the first implantation of the ocular prosthesis. It was a test of the idea in practice (the computer processing the image occupied almost the whole room, and no mobility has been mentioned, and the picture consisted of only a few points)...IA 00015
 
 
...1979 - Japanese company "NTT" launches a cellular service in Japan...Article 7
 
...1980s - a mathematical relationship between the electrical responses of individual neurons of the monkeys’ cerebral cortex and the direction in which they moved their limb (based on the cosine function) was established. It was also found that different groups of neurons in different areas of the brain jointly controlled motor commands, but they were able to record electrical signals from excited neurons in only one area simultaneously due to the technical limitations imposed by its equipment...IA 00015
 
...1980s - British jewellers create the so-called "grandmother's bracelet" - with the names of grandchildren engraved on them...IA 00005
 

…1981 - flak jacket G-81 has been adopted by army, fashioned from 30 layers of fabric SVM (Soviet analog of Kevlar) and sewn armor plates of thickness 1.25 mm. Unfortunately, it only protected against splinters and was punched with machine-gun fire from a distance of 400-600 meters…
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...1980s - it was a commonplace installing software from 10-20 floppy disks.  Such a process took some time (more than an hour), and it was impossible to do something else on the computer at that time.  The PC does not have modern multi-core processors and multitasking functionality. Although manufacturers came up with alternative means to increase the volume of stored data, including the popular zip archivers, the increase was mainly due to the fact that it is more convenient to manage data but not how to connect the systems to each other more effectively...Article 7
 
...1982 - the amount of information stored on a diskette grew to 1.2 megabytes...Article 7
 
…1985 - the production of bulletproof vests G-85T and the G-85K began, in which a thicker armor plate made of titanium and boron carbide were applied, and then G-86 was developed, which is produced in nine versions...
IA 00006


...1987 - the first mobile call of the party leader to the USSR Ministry of Communications in the presence of the vice-president of a large foreign corporation. In such a way the mobile phone has become a means of influence on the minds of politicians...
IA 00010
...1988 - scientists Farwell and Donchin (Farwell 1988) implemented a system of "virtual keyboard" that allowed to print text, recognizing components while reading visual evoked potentials (EP). System modifications with ever-increasing possibilities, which have found application both in the clinic for communication with patients, who have completely lost the possibility of movement, and innovative technological projects for remote controlled robots, were subsequently elaborated. Since the mid-1990s, the rapid development of the neuro-computer interface (NCI) has begun. Several groups of scientists were able to fix the signals of the motor center of the brain, using records of signals from groups of neurons, and also use these signals to control external devices...IA 00015
 
 
...the end of the 1980s - 3.5-inch drives store approximately 2.4 megabytes.  Such an amount of information was a breakthrough in the field of data storage in those times, now, it is completely unimaginable...Article 7
 
...1993 - "IBM" company created a digital smartphone. "Simon" is introduced to the world: a mobile phone, a pager, a fax machine and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) all rolled into one. "Simon" offered a whole range of functions: calendar, address book, clock, calculator, notepad and e-mail.  It was equipped with a touch screen, touch pen, and QWERTY keyboard. Soon, the predecessors of modern devices appeared at "Nokia", "Erickson" and other manufacturers...Article 7
 
...the beginning of the 1990s - there appeared some  academic theoretical studies with "predictions" that  the combination of man and machine will give a completely new form of communication and interaction, which will contributed to the development of man-smartphone technology.  And this reality is developing right in front of us...Article 7
 
...the beginning of the 1990s - the concept of plug-in devices appeared. At that time researchers at the "Auto-ID Centre" at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology began to reflect on the idea of creating such a system that would allow connecting devices in the physical world using sensors and wireless signals...Article 7 
 
...the 1990s - start of the widespread use of computer networks.  Cable and other local networks enabled organizations to exchange data within the company as well as with partners. However, the high cost and the closed nature of these networks, combined with the relatively low data transfer rate, limited the overall rate of use of this technology and their value was low.  The vast majority of people (and devices) still did not have the ability to connect to such networks...Article 7
 

...1994 - the system of navigation GPS- of 24 satellites is formed...
IA 00003-C
 
 
...1995 - the worldwide computer network Internet was put into commercial circulation...Article 7
 
...1997 - the "Palm Pilot" PDA appeared, and it raised a furore. It allowed you to store important personal data and it was synchronized with software on your computer. It was also possible to add applications and additional features. Some later models had a built-in modem, and they could be connected to the Internet. For the first time, users have a viable alternative to paper...Article 7
 
...1999 - scientists deciphered the signal of the neurons of the cat's visual system. In the experiments electrodes implanted in the thalamus (the structure of the midbrain, which transmits sensory signals from the sensory organs into the cortex) were used. Cats were shown eight short films, during which the activity of neurons was recorded. Using mathematical filters, the researchers deciphered the signals to reproduce the images that the cats had seen and were able to reproduce recognizable scenes and moving objects. Similar results on a man were obtained by researchers from Japan...IA 00015
 
 
...1999 - Kevin Ashton (one of the founders of the "Auto-ID Centre") proposed the term "Internet of Things"!!! Ashton considered the possibility of using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags to change the "Procter&Gamble" consumer logistics chain management system, where he worked as a junior brand manager. In the future Ashton played a decisive role in determining global standards for radio frequency identification, and then he became an entrepreneur in the field of high technology and launched a number of his own start-ups...Article 7
 
...1999-2001 - The European Union is funding an international project to create an adaptive BCI system (BCI), in the Russian-language literature - a neuro-computer interface (NCI) capable of further learning during its use - Adaptive Brain Interface (ABI)...IA 00015
 
 
...XXI century - over the past decade, several strong innovations in the design of bracelets have appeared.  Silver has become the most common material for their manufacture. Preference for silver extended to industrial metals, such as silver-gray steel, titanium and tungsten, which have now become the dominant material in men's bracelets, and as the “pro-green” movement grows, more and more people demand “naturalness” in their wardrobe...IA 00005
 
 
...2000 - the implantation of the system, in which an array of electrodes allowed to form about 60 points (pixels), was made to the patient. It improved the reproduced picture significantly...IA 00015
 
 
...2000 – a surgery to implant artificial retinal microcircuits in the eyes of patients was performed. Indeed, artificial retina is a little generous. A silicon chip (diameter about 2.5 millimetres, thickness 0.002 mm), which contains about 3500 photosensitive cells (like a solar cell) was implanted...IA 00015
 
 
...2000s – creation of a neuro-computer interface (NCI) that reproduces the movement of the front limbs of a monkey during joystick manipulations or swallowing food. This system works in a mode of real time and it is used for remote control of robot movements via Internet connection...IA 00015
 
 
...the beginning of the XXI century - scientists have created a compact universal neuromodule, allowing to build artificial neural network structures of complex configuration...IA 00015
 

…2000 – 2001 - American scientists had created a prototype of a compact universal neuromodulator, allowing building artificial neural network structures of any configuration and complexity…
IA 00006
 
...2001 - Doug Lainey, an analyst at "Gartner", gave a short and intelligible definition of big data. He stated that big data includes three main components:  volume, speed, and diversity. Volume refers to the amount of data, speed refers to how quickly data is generated and made available for use, and diversity means many different types of existing data. This is a reasonable concept, which is based on the collection, storage and use of data sets obtained from both structured and unstructured sources. Big data usually exists in the form of message flows, text files, photos, video and audio recordings, social media...Article 7 
…the beginning of the XXI century - in the first years of the third millennium, scientists of leading countries independently started to create so-called "convector substance" - a compact device that converts matter into energy. The main elements of the convector were plates made of a unique alloy obtained by joint experiment on a board of modern spacecraft…
IA 00006

...2002 - the transition to an updated version of the geocentric coordinate system is implemented...
IA 00003-C

...2002-2003 - two arrays of electrodes (242 electrodes in each), implanted in both hemispheres of the brain, have already been used. Such a system made it possible to obtain a picture consisting of several hundred pixels (matrix 15 by 15). It is believed that it is needed at least about 1000 pixels (that is, a matrix of 30 to 30) and not smaller number of electrodes to create a more or less decent visual picture...IA 00015
 


...2004 - teleportation of the photon quantum state over a distance of 6 km...
IA 00001

...2004 - the first artificial silicon chip was created. Silicon has the ability to connect inanimate matter with living neurons, and the transistors surrounded by neurons receive signals from nerve cells, while the capacitors are sending signals to them. Each transistor on the chip catches the slightest, barely noticeable change in the electric charge that occurs when the neuron "shoots" during the transfer of sodium ions. The new chip is capable of receiving pulses from 16,000 brain neurons of biological origin and sending back signals to several hundred cells. Since neurons were isolated from the surrounding gial cells in the production of the chip, it was necessary to add proteins that "stick" the neurons in the brain, also forming additional sodium channels. The growing number of sodium channels increases the chances that the ion transport is converted into electrical signals in the chip...IA 00015

 

...2004 - the launch of new systems such as "Gnom-M", which broadcast two civil signals on L1 and L2 frequencies...
IA 00003-C

...2006 - Jeff Howe coined the term "crowdsourcing" by publishing the book "Crowdsourcing.  The collective mind as a tool for business development".  "Technological progress ... destroys the barriers that previously separated amateurs from professionals.  Amateurs and dilettantes suddenly got a market for the results of their activities, in which organizations connect to the hidden talents of people" - notes the author.  Howe sees crowdsourcing as a way to connect to knowledge and experience that were previously impossible to obtain and analyse...Article 7
 
 
...2007 - the 1st stage of the modernization of the ground segment is held, as a result location accuracy was increased...
IA 00003-C

...2007 - a historic market launch for a device called the "Apple" - "iPhone".  Smartphones fell into the hands of the masses. Thanks to this, it became possible to communicate in real time between two points on the map using a device that can be held in your hand...Article 7
 
 
...2007 - according to statistics, every fifth scientist in America is on neurostimulators to improve his effectiveness in the atmosphere of general competition...IA 00015
 
...2008 - "Apple" sells approximately 3.7 million "iPhone" devices...Article 7
 
...2008 - the "Ushahidi" software platform emerged, created by developers from Kenya, Ghana, South Africa, Malawi, the Netherlands and the USA. It allows volunteers around the world to map any event, from natural disasters to political unrest.  The result is an intricate hybrid with real-time visualization, geolocation data and high-tech collective mapping features...Article 7
 
...2009 - "FedEx" Chairman Fred Smith said that in the future only robots would deliver goods. Today in the United States work on the implementation of these plans, however, was suspended.  (In June 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration banned the use of commercial drones to deliver goods in the near future)...Article 7
 
 
...2009 - the launch of a unique project, the purpose of which is a creation of universal algorithms for the recognition of visual images by a person...IA 00015
 
 
...2010 - "Google" launches unmanned vehicle equipment using a 64-beam laser system. Such a car (actually a test fleet of ten modified "Audi", "Lexus" and "Toyota" cars) crossed the steep and winding Lombard Street in San Francisco and moved over the Golden Gate Bridge...Article 7
 
...2010 - Scientists have put an implant to a patient with Meniere's syndrome to combat attacks of dizziness...IA 00015
 
...2010 - employees of European security services discovered the "Stuxnet" worm in the technical means of managing nuclear power plants, oil pipeline infrastructure and energy networks. Open evidence indicates that a sophisticated malware was developed by a private organization or government agency to attack Iran’s industrial infrastructure where about 30,000 computers were allegedly infected with this virus...Article 7
 
...2010 - "Apple" launches the "iPad", which changed the stakes in the game and gave the green light to the Internet of Things.  By that time some manufacturers had already begun to produce smartphones and PDAs that could be connected to the Internet, but these devices were slow and bulky, and their functionality was extremely limited. Many of them just only synchronized calendars, contacts, and basic data.  And most of them disgustingly coped with any tasks other than voice calls...Article 7

 

...2010 - 2nd stage of modernization: a new measuring system with high precision characteristics is installed. As a result of it the accuracy of the calculation of the ephemeris and clock bias board is increased, thereby improving the accuracy of navigation positioning...
IA 00003-C


...2010 – it is believed that the number of vehicles in worldwide use exceeds 1 billion. Approximately 1 per 7 people…
IA 00004
 
 
...2010 - mass production of dual-system navigators...
IA 00003-C

...2011 - a successful demonstration of the experiment on the recognition of imaginary images...IA 00015
 
 
...2013 - 70% of the US population has a broadband Internet connection at home (for comparison, in 2000 - 3% of the US population)...Article 7
 
 
...2013 - Jeff Bezos, head of "Amazon", announced that his company planned to start delivering goods using drones. Drones would fundamentally change entire industries. And if this idea turns out to be viable, robotic delivery will fundamentally change the way how consumers buy and use products.  In principle, this will even change the approach to the processing of old products. 3D printing will make a further revolution. This technology is already in use in many industries...Article 7
 
...2013 - scientists Charit Perera, Arkady Zaslavsky and Dimitros Georgakopolus in a scientific article published in the article "Studies and practical exercises on types of communications" (Communications Surveys and Tutorials) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers described that context-sensitive calculations embodied in three types of interaction. The first interaction is personalization related to the user's preferences and the corresponding response of the system to them (for example, programming a home automation system). The second interaction is passive awareness of the context, when the system monitors the environment and offers the user appropriate options (for example, receiving a discount coupon at the entrance to the store). The third interaction is active awareness of the context, when the system continuously monitors the state of the environment and circumstances and acts independently (for example,  if the system detects a gas leak, it automatically notifies the appropriate service). Therefore, it can be assumed that when the Internet of Things gets stronger, we will see all this in reality, and a stream of new applications will rapidly enter into our lives...Article 7
 
 

...2014 - teleportation of the photon quantum state over a distance of 25 km...
IA 00001

…2014– due to the grant, the scientists developed a special geomaterial able to make invisible to earthquakes the objects in which they are laid. Scientists develop mathematical apparatus that allows investigating the wave - the root cause of destruction on the surface during the tremors, as well as describing the methods of combating it…
IA 00006
 
...2014 - Pew Research Centre published a report based on a comprehensive study of the Internet. The data obtained from 2500 technical specialists were used in the scientific article "Digital Life in 2025". Among all the predictions experts highlight several ones. The vast majority of respondents believe that the Internet of Things will lead to the appearance of a global, absorbing, invisible and comprehensive networked computer environment .It will rely on smart sensors, cameras, software, databases and powerful data centres.  Inside this space extended reality will transform the information of the physical world into virtual data displayed on wearable and implantable devices.  Physical objects will be massively tagged to collect data that we once could not perceive. All this will lead to incredibly significant changes in society, politics, many industries, education and public administration...Article 7
 
...2014 - the number of smartphones sold in the world exceeds 500 million copies...Article 7
 


...2014 - one of the examples of "controls at your fingertips" was the concept of the device of the future - the individual human bracelet “FIOS-2205” by Ukrainian designer. This is our innovative artifact 00001, which we visualized on the site www.profantasy.com.ua...
IA 00010

…2014 – 2017 - the ongoing elaboration of innovative models of body armor, depending on the demand for their use…
IA 00006
...2015 - scientists announced the creation of the so-called "electronic brain" - an artificial analog of the human brain. It's not about developing a program, or even creating another supercomputer, but about assembling compact neuromorphic chips. They mimic the properties and functions of nerve cells in the brain. The need for such chips arose due to the fact that modern microprocessors are very bad at emulating neurons; they often require the resources of a supercomputer to simulate the brain work of fish or invertebrates...IA 00015
 


...2015 - the beginning of the development of a fundamentally new intellectual OS by a known corporation, whose software we use in everyday life...
IA 00001


...2015-2017 - launch of an advanced satellite system "Gnom 2M", modified according to test results is carried out. In addition to the open-CDMA-signals in the range L3, open and encrypted signals L1 and L2 arose...IA 00003-C

 

...2016 – testing of the brain-computer neurointerface, which allows controlling biological robotic prostheses with the power of the mind...IA 00015

 

...2017 - approximately 1.9 billion smartphones are used in the world. Each of them has a built-in chipset that captures data, voice, video, audio, motion, location and much more. In addition, the smartphone is easily connected to another device. It also serves as a remote control and a control panel that displays personal media information and news feed.  Smartphones receive notifications of events, they store boarding passes and electronic tickets, install payment systems. All these applications connect to social networks, and use crowdsourcing to create new ways to manage and analyse events in the real world...Article 7



...2017 -  famous quantum experiment of Chinese scientists teleportation...
IA 00001

 

...2017-2018 – the disappearance of language barriers. There will be devices that can translate languages simultaneously, thus simplifying the need to use interpreters for people from different countries...
IA 00010
...2018 - the appearance of accumulators-microbatteries, which will have enough power to start the car and to run it for several days. Gadgets are everywhere - from handbags to clothing items...
IA 00010

...2018 - data security in the phone will be provided by biometric identification, which can be carried out either by scanning a fingerprint or voice analysis or face recognition ...
IA 00010

...2018 - the unit is considered to be "intelligent" and yet extremely easy to use. The computer will have all the five senses...
IA 00010
 ...2019 - according to the Swedish telecommunications company "Ericsson", the number of smartphones sold worldwide will exceed 5.6 billion...Article 7
 
 
...beginning of 2020 - the release of the Smartphone on technology "Tactus" - Smartphones will get a technology of a contactless control. They can be controlled by thoughts... 
IA 00010

...2020 - according to the predictions of "International Data Corporation", by this time, 40 zettabytes of data will exist in the world!!! (For reference: 1000 terabytes = 1 petabyte, 1000 petabytes = 1 Exabyte, 1000 Exabyte = 1 zettabyte. About 250 billion DVDs will fit in one zettabyte that is more than 35 years of continuous viewing of high-quality video). This is approximately 6 terabytes for every person living today - or 3 million books per capita.  It is not surprising that various microchips and sensors as well as a person with a smartphone or tablet generate a huge amount of data.  In general, data volumes increase annually by approximately 50-60%, and mobile traffic grows by approximately 61% per year according to "Cisco Systems"...Article 7
 
...mid 2020 - the introduction of technology 5G - which allows to transfer data on Internet at speeds up to 10 Gbit/s. Wide use of "control at hand" is expected - devices for the functions of Smartphones controls beyond the device itself, for example, the imposition of elements of control on bracelets, rings, the network glasses, clothing items or accessories...
IA 00010

...2020 - The role of the keyboard will lose its value, which it has today...
IA 00010

...2022-2024 - discovery of principal possibility of the jump gate existence (Japan)...
IA 00001



...2025 - advanced satellites "Gnome-KM", where more than 10 signals with a code division are adopted...
IA 00003-C



...2025 - the device will be small enough so they can be embedded in watches or jewelry, at the same time they will work for years without recharging...
IA 00010


...2030s – creating algorithm of operating systems security. It prevents reliably any viruses in the core of the system...
IA 00002

 

...2035 - interactive glasses will be reduced to the size of contact lenses that will project all the information directly on the retina. Mind control is possible...
IA 00010
 
...the beginning of the 40s of the XXI century - the Internet will be available at any point of the globe. Wires will be abolished, as wireless technologies will be strongly developed. Humankind will gradually shift from silicon processors to biological... 
IA 00010


...2036-2037 - after testing the technology building of the first pair of gates in the solar system is expected...
IA 00001

…2050-2054– it becomes clear that the total urbanization of land surface, population growth of urban metropolises, overlapping on haphazard development of many infrastructures, threaten in the near future with a sharp aggravation of global problems…
IA 00006


...2056 – a mathematical algorithm that has appeared in all search systems is created, it allows to determine from the facial image its belonging, and create three-dimensional model...
IA 00002



…2079 – phototropic prototype of armor has been successfully field tested…
IA 00006

...2086 – Sailor 030 subjugated all of the Internet, all the resources and the planet itself came under the control of AI...
IA 00002

…In the period of years 2385-2388 as a result of modernization of neuromodules droids will get its own "self", and the amount of accumulated experience prevailed over ossified, often unsuited to the givens of the world, software requirements. The experience gained in neuromodules, allowed to act flexibly and efficiently, to respond immediately to a variety of situations, taking the right decisions. Along with the integration of neuromodules they got the right to self-development…
IA 00003-B


...2390 – Flight of a spaceship to Alpha Centauri star system becomes possible...
IA 00003-A

...2402 – Scanner SPel-034 as a prototype definition of non-biological forms of life is supposed to be invented...
IA 00003-A

PARADOXES OF USING INNOVATIONS

The progressive nature of innovations generates positive expectations of their use, but sometimes the reality of their application may puzzle us, and sometimes shock! Before any innovation is used, no one, even an innovator, knows how it will affect the world.
Agree, when Windows or MacOS came along, no one thought of computer viruses; the MacDonald brothers did not think about the problem of obesity; and barbed wire was created to control the cattle. But, unfortunately, barbed wire quickly found its way during the First World War, and made one of the most brutal methods of fighting in the history of mankind a reality. (Originally it had been supposed to be used for cattle fencing, but caused a barbarity). And Einstein's theory of relativity in general produced a revolutionized understanding the universe and simultaneously, despite the initial disapproval of its creator, led to the appearance of an atomic bomb. Therefore, any invention can be for the benefit of people or against them and turn into horror.
Innovators (inventors) often give out desirable for valid and their innovations always have unintended consequences. Other people can freely use their know-how; and, whereas everyone has his own needs, values, ideas and desires, it is impossible to predict what kind of thought come to one’s head will be used by another.
Today, at the beginning of the 21st century, revolutionary ideas are so different from our current thinking that we do not fully understand how to apply them. This means that it is unpredictable to use innovation only after its adoption, but also the time, as well as the motives for its implementation and adoption. Like in Mass Effect, for instance...

...For thinking people ...

80% technologies that we will use in everyday life in the next 10 years have not even been invented yet. Surprisingly, thanks to the development of innovations, a business of trillions of dollars is already moving from stores built of brick and concrete into clicks and orders on the Internet, and the network is rapidly becoming the infrastructure of the new economy.

... The future is already here ...

© 2019 Project Fantasy