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INNOVATIVE ARTIFACT 00015 - HUMAN NEURO MODULE «UNANA». PROTOTYPE 2029

The neural artificial network

 

The neural artificial network

 
WHAT IS IT
Neuro-artificial network (NАN), or for simplicity also called a direct neural interface, brain interface (BCI or BMI - brain-computer interface and brain-machine interface), the interface "brain-computer") is an electronic-cybernetic system established for exchanging the information between the human brain and the electronic device (e.g. computer). In unidirectional interfaces external devices can either receive signals from the brain or send them to it (for example, emulating the retina in the eyesight recovering by an electronic implant). Bidirectional interfaces allow the brain and external devices to exchange the information in both directions. The biofeedback technique is used in the basis of artificial neural network. According to the forecasts, an advanced type of programs will  play a key role in the appearance of AI, the so-called deep neural nets (DNNs). They will allow to create systems that can educate themselves and perceive the surrounding world around themselves. DNNs will independently analyze all the unstructured information that people just will not understand or it would take a long time to investigate...
 
DESCRIPTION
You must admit that an opportunity to control the gadget by just an effort of thought can become the crown of man-machine interface creation. Receiving data directly into the brain is the pinnacle of what virtual reality сan achieve. The idea is not new and it has been appearing in a wide range of fantastic literature for many years. There were almost all cyberpunks with a direct connection to the "kiberdecks" and "biosoft". And control of any device through a standard cerebral connector and a lot of other interesting things. But science fiction is good, and what is going on in the real world?
 
If you remember, in the early 1990s, cyberpunk with a variety of implants, "neuroshunts" and "neuromodules" improving brain and body (they seemed a matter of the nearest future) was especially popular. But it turned out that people do not want to inoculate any artificial things in their bodies, and implants theme has disappeared from the front pages of scientific journals for some time. However, not for a long time. Now, at the beginning of the XXI century, the understanding of "augmented reality" provided by external devices, seems insufficient. The development of neuroscience and understanding of what brain areas can be manipulated to produce the desired effect, just push the scientists, futurists and engineers to create effective implants (or neuromodules, in our terminology) for improving memory, vision, cognitive skills and training abilities.
 
...as a rule, important scientific experiments are carried out on a strictly сlassified areas (military bases). For example, samples of future technology, which are created there, combining "convector substances" as an energy source, allowing to use all achievements of  servomechanics, and artificial neuromodules. Subsequently, the battle tests of androids, conducted in the territory of east state, have failed: servo-machanisms, perfectly prepared and camouflaged with foam clay, had passed all the tests at the sites, could not cope with the task, have arranged massacre instead of the address stripping...

...it turned out, the neural systems of combat machines distinguish people solely by their activity, in terms of "potential threat." Data on the characteristics of an "civilians" are stored in a parallel structure of neuromodule, but can not be claimed because of the absence of direct relationship...
...the volume of human cerebral tissue is comparable to the volume of four neuromodules ...

...neither two, nor even four neuromodules do not contain sufficient quantity of biological neural nets for the nascency and development of the personality...
 
...exploring the structure of the cyborg, direct your attention to the thin silver threads of unprecedented strength, that connect neuromodules with the physical channels of data exchange, located inside a spherical protective shell, which protects the core of the system hardware from moisture and dust...
 
WHY
Neuro module UNANA is reliably capable of simulating the operating principle of the human brain nerve cells and carrying out its main functions. The neuromorphic chips have already proved their workability – the system is made of these chips in laboratory tests could solve a number of primitive tasks that were under the power of the monkey’s brain. Nowadays scientists are planning to create a full-fledged artificial analogue of the monkey’s brain based on the new chips. Perhaps electronic copy of the human brain would be created, although it is a task for the nearest future...
 
FOR WHOM
The practical need for such innovative artifact is long overdue. Now tens of thousands patients need a similar interface. At first, these are completely paralyzed people (so-called locked-in syndrome), for example, some patients with ALS, patients with severe cerebral palsy; patients with severe strokes and injuries. It is expected as this technology develops; it can be used for other patients with less damaged motor system, such as quadriplegia. It is obvious that BCI should be based on recognition of brain biopotential patterns. If the patients were able to change the nature of their biopotentials, for example by performing certain mental tasks, the BCI system would translate these changes to the control codes, such as the movement of the mouse cursor on the computer screen or the hand of the robot manipulator. These codes could be also used for selecting letters at the "virtual keyboard" or controlling the wheelchair...
 
FEATURES
...there are different types of cybernetic systems. In this case, the neural nets are primary. However, when neuro modules are subordinated to the overall program, they are only the expert subsystems that are capable of offering innovative solutions to the problem. It is not an experience. This is a different logic. Strange for us, people...

...functionality of a neural net, trained only for combat operations, precludes versatile comprehension of the situation...
...structuring of information in software modules are millions of times faster than the same natural process...

...the emergence and development of a new consciousness is only possible under the condition: all system resources, ranging from computing power and ending data storage devices, must obey neuro modules and work for their service...
 
CHRONOLOGY
the beginning of the twentieth century - the fact of studying the fundamentals of neuro-computer interfaces, is rooted in I.P.Pavlov's doctrine of conditioned reflexes and the regulating role of the cerebral cortex...
 
1929 - methods of electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) developed by scientist Hans Berger...
 
1935 - Russian scientist P.K.Anokhin in his works showed "...that the feedback principle plays a decisive role in regulating both the highest adaptive reactions of a person and his internal environment". As a result, the theory of functional systems was developed, the potential for using it in neuro-computer interfaces is far from exhausted...
 
1943 - the first steps in the field of artificial neural networks. Scientists V.McCalach and V.Pits have shown that it is possible to implement algorithms of logical functions for recognizing spatial images with the help of threshold neural elements...
 
1949 – an original rule of mathematics, which became the basis for training a number of networks and algorithms of neural connections, was proposed...
 
early 1950s - there were suggestions (scientific and pseudo-scientific) that EEG (electroencephalography) can also be used to read thoughts or to control external devices directly. Such use of the EEG was called the brain-computer interface (BCI), and in the Russian literature - the neuro-computer interface (NCI). A number of scientists have repeatedly attempted to control devices with the help of EEG (Dewan 1967, Vidal 1973), and the interest of the general public in this direction is permanently fuelled by fantastic films using analogues of this interface, for example, the films "Johnny Mnemonic", "Matrix", "X-Man" and many others...
 
the beginning of the 1960s - the study of a neural network model, later called a "perceptron"...
 
1968 - the work of N. P. Bekhtereva on the decoding of mental activity brain codes, continuing to the present time, including from the perspective of neurocybernetics, has been published...
 
1969 - the analysis of single-layer perceptrons conducted by scientists showed the inherent limitations associated with the impossibility of representing "excluding or" such networks, which played a negative role for the further development of research in the field of neural networks...
 
1970s - studies of the neuro-computer interface. After years of experimentation on animals, the first devices capable of transferring biological information from the human body to the computer were implanted into the human body. With the help of these devices it was possible to regenerate the damaged functions of hearing, vision, and also lost motor skills (for example, auditory implant). The success of the NCI is based on the ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt (the property of plasticity), through which the implanted device can serve as a source of biological information...
 
1970s - algorithms for reconstruction of motions from signals of neurons of the motor cortex that control motor functions (based on Wikipedia materials) have been developed. The researchers found that monkeys can learn quickly to control the reaction rate of individual neurons in the primary motor cortex of the brain selectively, using the closed positioning of operations, the training method of punishment and rewards...
 
1978 - the first implantation of the ocular prosthesis. It was a test of the idea in practice (the computer processing the image occupied almost the whole room, and no mobility has been mentioned, and the picture consisted of only a few points)...
 
1980s - a mathematical relationship between the electrical responses of individual neurons of the monkeys’ cerebral cortex and the direction in which they moved their limb (based on the cosine function) was established. It was also found that different groups of neurons in different areas of the brain jointly controlled motor commands, but they were able to record electrical signals from excited neurons in only one area simultaneously due to the technical limitations imposed by its equipment...
 
1988 - scientists Farwell and Donchin (Farwell 1988) implemented a system of "virtual keyboard" that allowed to print text, recognizing components while reading visual evoked potentials (EP). System modifications with ever-increasing possibilities, which have found application both in the clinic for communication with patients, who have completely lost the possibility of movement, and innovative technological projects for remote controlled robots, were subsequently elaborated...
 
Since the mid-1990s, the rapid development of the neuro-computer interface (NCI) has begun. Several groups of scientists were able to fix the signals of the motor center of the brain, using records of signals from groups of neurons, and also use these signals to control external devices...
 
1999 - scientists deciphered the signal of the neurons of the cat's visual system. In the experiments electrodes implanted in the thalamus (the structure of the midbrain, which transmits sensory signals from the sensory organs into the cortex) were used. Cats were shown eight short films, during which the activity of neurons was recorded. Using mathematical filters, the researchers deciphered the signals to reproduce the images that the cats had seen and were able to reproduce recognizable scenes and moving objects. Similar results on a man were obtained by researchers from Japan...
 
1999-2001 - The European Union is funding an international project to create an adaptive BCI system (BCI), in the Russian-language literature - a neuro-computer interface (NCI) capable of further learning during its use - Adaptive Brain Interface (ABI )...
 
2000 - the implantation of the system, in which an array of electrodes allowed to form about 60 points (pixels), was made to the patient. It improved the reproduced picture significantly...
 
2000 – a surgery to implant artificial retinal microcircuits in the eyes of patients was performed. Indeed, artificial retina is a little generous. A silicon chip (diameter about 2.5 millimetres, thickness 0.002 mm), which contains about 3500 photosensitive cells (like a solar cell) was implanted...
 
2000s – creation of a neuro-computer interface (NCI) that reproduces the movement of the front limbs of a monkey during joystick manipulations or swallowing food. This system works in a mode of real time and it is used for remote control of robot movements via Internet connection...
 
the beginning of the XXI century - scientists have created a compact universal neuromodule, allowing to build artificial neural network structures of complex configuration...
 
2002-2003 - two arrays of electrodes (242 electrodes in each), implanted in both hemispheres of the brain, have already been used. Such a system made it possible to obtain a picture consisting of several hundred pixels (matrix 15 by 15). It is believed that it is needed at least about 1000 pixels (that is, a matrix of 30 to 30) and not smaller number of electrodes to create a more or less decent visual picture...
 
2004 - the first artificial silicon chip was created. Silicon has the ability to connect inanimate matter with living neurons, and the transistors surrounded by neurons receive signals from nerve cells, while the capacitors are sending signals to them. Each transistor on the chip catches the slightest, barely noticeable change of biological origin and sending back signals to several hundred cells. Since neurons were isolated from the surrounding gial cells in the production of the chip, chances that the ion transport is converted into electrical signals in the chip...
 
2007 - according to statistics, every fifth scientist in America is on neurostimulators to improve his effectiveness in the atmosphere of general competition...
 
2009 - the launch of a unique project, the purpose of which is a creation of universal algorithms for the recognition of visual images by a person...
 
2011 - a successful demonstration of the experiment on the recognition of imaginary images...
 
2010 - Scientists have put an implant to a patient with Meniere's syndrome to combat attacks of dizziness...
 
2015 - scientists announced the creation of the so-called "electronic brain" - an artificial analog of the human brain. It's not about developing a program, or even creating another supercomputer, but about assembling compact neuromorphic chips. They mimic the properties and functions of nerve cells in the brain. The need for such chips arose due to the fact that modern microprocessors are very bad at emulating neurons; they often require the resources of a supercomputer  to simulate the brain work of fish or invertebrates...
 
2016 – testing of the brain-computer neurointerface, which allows controlling biological robotic prostheses with the power of the mind...
 
POTENTIAL FEASIBILITY OF INNOVATIVE ARTIFACT
  ≥10%
 
RUC (reading utility criterion)
more than 50%
 
CRITERION: INNOVATIVE IMPLEMENTATION BARRIER  
average 
 
INSPIRATION RESOURCE
[Internet]
 
OUR SUMMARY
We believe that the development of brain interfaces (BCI or BCI - brain-computer interface and a brain-machine interface) is well under way, although only few people know it. Of course, success is very far from science fiction novels, but it is quite noticeable. Now work on the brain and nerve interfaces is mainly conducted for making various prosthesis and the devices aimed at facilitating the life of partially or completely paralyzed people. All projects can be divided into interfaces for input (repairing or replacement of damaged senses) and output (controlling prosthesis and other devices). Another important criterion for division of existing developments is the severity of trauma, or the need for surgery. In all cases of direct data inputting, it is necessary to make an operation on implanting electrodes in the brain or nerves. In the case of withdrawal, there is no need of external sensors for making electroencephalogram (EEC). However, the EEC is a quite unreliable  instrument, because the skull weakens the brain currents and we can receive only very generalized information. In the case of electrodes implantation it is possible to obtain data directly from relevant think tanks (e.g., motor center). However, such an operation is a serious matter, so the experiments are conducted only on animals...
 
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