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ARTICLE 8. AN INNOVATIVE ARTIFACT AS A PRODUCT OF THE FUTURE

 08

It is possible to assume that everything what is considered original, innovative, rare and incomprehensible will become prestigious and attractive. Increasingly the latest technologies will play this role. They will attract people as if bright toys attract little children. Modern technological capabilities, which are closely connected with the inevitably growing demand for our lives, leisure and comfort, and will provide a powerful new wave of innovation.

In the scientific world there exist some interesting works that consider artificial objects as an independent subject of study. The basic works were written by archaeologists, specialists in art history, museum experts and many other cultural researchers, however, these sources are more descriptive and hermeneutical in nature, and objects are considered mainly from aesthetic or historical aspects. A. Krasnoglazov`s thesis "The functioning of an artifact in the cultural-semantic space"; collection of works "Ontology of artifacts" written on the basis of the materials of the international conference (Moscow, 2010); various publications of cultural scientists, philosophers and sociologists are among the most famous works on the development of the "theory of an artificial object". The books "The System of Things" written by J. Baudrillard or M. Foucault`s "Words and thinks"

The concept of "artifact" stands out as an elementary unit of the artificial world meaning it as "any artificially created object as well as physical and ideational" in A. Krasnoglazov`s dissertation. The author also introduces the concept of "cultural-semantic field", which "is generated by the accumulation of homogeneous artifacts and at the same time determines their formation and interpretation." A.Krasnoglazov suggests to distinguish "subject artifacts" (buildings, tools, paintings, etc.) and "second-order artifacts" (scientific theory, legal norm, image of a picture, literary character, etc.), i.e. implementation of the subject image.

E.Orlova suggests dividing artifacts in accordance with their functional characteristics into the following classes:

1) things that are used to organize the subject-spatial environment and for life support;

2) objectified images and ideas filling a symbolic intersubjective space and that are used in communication processes;

3) technologies performing instrumental functions in the production of other classes of artifacts;

4) regulatory entities supporting processes of interaction and communication;

5) evaluation criteria that allow ranking other classes of artifacts, social relations and their participants, sociocultural events, and the state of social systems.

J. Baudrillard introduces and describes the concept of "technems" as constantly evolving elements. The famous American geneticist R. Dawkins introduces another term - "meme" (from the Greek μίμημα - "imitation", "emulation"; in Russian version "meme or mime"), which means a replicator, a cultural gene that is distributed by copying through the human brain using imitation, in the form of ideas (thoughts, melodies, inventions, texts). In our opinion, the category "artifact" includes all objects created by man: things, "technems", as well as objects of intangible ("spiritual") culture — thoughts, ideas, prohibitions, legends, etc.

We can state that there are practically no theories of historical development of artifacts per se, but there is a spectacular sea of concepts for the development of various fields of engineering and technology (from weapons to agriculture and information systems), concepts for the development of fine art, architecture, urban planning, etc. But all these are areas of artifact production.

In general the term "artifact" was borrowed by culturologists from archeology, and it was initially used in philosophical sciences to emphasize the difference between an artificial, man-made subbject or a tool from natural objects. Archaeologists mean artifact to be the product of individual human activity (opposite to "structure" - the result of family or group activity, "monument" - the product of community activity, "region" - total of items produced by groups of people).

Culturologists have expanded the traditional concept of "artifact" and identify it as a separate category of "cultural artifact". For instance, A. Flier defines a cultural artifact as "an interpretative embodiment of a cultural form in a particular material product, behavioral act, artwork, information message, or value judgment."

Some foreign philosophers give the artifacts an ontological status, note that "unlike natural objects, artifacts have an essence, and a nature that depends on mental activity", and that "artifacts actually change not only the range of our capabilities, but also ourselves."

When considering the concept of "innovative artifact" it is necessary to identify another fundamental concept – the "sign". In information processes signs are elementary information carriers that are combined into sign systems - elementary databases. Information about the artifact is transmitted using signs, so the "sign" is in some way the "genome" of the artifact, and hence the culture in general. Many linguists and biologists have noted the striking structural similarity of the natural language with the genetic code.

For example the famous scientist Roman Jacobson argued that "language is the only true heredity that coexists with molecular heredity... that could well use this second type of heredity as a model. "Therefore, the category of "sign", participating in the transmission of information, combines the organic world with the artificial world and this category of "the sign" is a structural element of the artifact.

The subject of this article is the conceptualization mechanism of the "innovative artifact" concept in the world of the 21st century, which is understood as a material object created by man and intended for a specific purpose (improving human life).

An innovative artifact, whether it is a technical or cultural phenomenon, being the result of a creative transformative activity of a person, can be represented as a constituting element that connects various spheres of social space into a single whole. Keywords: innovation, artifact, technology, natural or artificial, concept, future, know-how.

The problem of innovative artifacts is crucial for revealing the dichotomy of simplicity and complexity, discursively filling the entire social space of modernity and serving as the ultimate foundation of many aspects of social dynamics: being integrated in complex social connections, artifacts are moving, difficult to perceive and usually hidden in the depths of consciousness as simple, stable and affordable, opening up the possibilities of synthesis "in a single integrating ontology". The basis for its construction can serve as the artificiality of social reality itself.

The identification of the unit, the "atom" of the artificial sphere opens up the possibility of interpreting significant social problems in the context of the spatial-environmental approach, where the subject field of an artifact is determined, first of all, by its boundary essence. One can speak of a pronounced interest in the artifact as a phenomenon of the ultimate foundation of human existence. Erasing the line between the artificial and the natural, the inability to discern in the modern world something which has not yet been touched by the human hand is the part that is in the focus of this article. The conceptualization of the "innovative artifact" makes it possible to comprehensively reveal the characteristics of social and anthropological, organic and inorganic, functional and non-functional.

You can agree that the invention begins to separate from the inventor from the moment of its implementation; it becomes something alien and largely opposes creativity. The finiteness and limitation of an innovative artifact acts as an embodiment of the finiteness and limitation of ourselves, and artificial, first of all, innovation, technology or technology, conceived as an auxiliary practical device, becomes popular, primarily, from the point of view of thinking and spirit. The ability to see the presence of a person becomes the main guideline for understanding an innovative artifact.

Innovative artifacts make up a wonderful subject field, a kind of "technology training ground" for further R&D. They have a borderline character, combine the characteristics of nature, the social world, culture and mentality. Artifacts can be considered in isolation, but at the same time they are clearly integrated in a complex way into society and complex social relations. Mysterious, mobile, difficult to grasp and usually hidden phenomena associated with human consciousness, subjectivity, intentions, are often presented as something simple, stable and open to observation and study in artifacts. This simplicity, clarity and obviousness can be deceiving, but this makes this subject area a fruitful field for innovative developments.

Conclusion:

1. An innovative artifact has certain positive properties that satisfy human needs, and negative properties (interference, damage, threats, etc.). But the general direction of the historical development of artifacts is to increase the positive properties of known artifacts (for example, in the speed of vehicles and communications, teleportation, nanotechnology), in the invention of new artifacts with new positive properties, as well as in limiting negative properties (safety of use, level of pollution etc.).

2. Each innovative artifact has ever been invented, modified and produced as a result of the creative and routine activities of a person with the corresponding abilities, knowledge, skills, motivation. All artifact needs are psychological in nature. Thus, the development of artifacts as a whole is determined by the development of the human psyche. In history, both knowledge and skills develop as well as the needs, motives, and desires of people, respectively innovative artifacts develop that meet these needs and which people have learned to produce.

3. A vivid graphic example of an innovative artifact uniting different paradigms is represented by a maps atlas (a material artifact, by the way), including not only physical and political maps, but also geological maps, fauna and flora, economic, demographic, linguistic, confessional maps etc. Phenomena of a different nature are depicted on each such map, but all maps are compatible due to an invariant structure: the outlines of the continents, coastline, largest islands, lakes, rivers, cities, mountain ranges. Or you can recall the famous Pirie Reis map of the 16th century, which shows the coastline of the mainland! 

4. Innovative artifacts are objects of technological theory: airplanes, cars, computers, bridges, roads, etc. If you want to describe them in more detail, you should turn directly to the concepts that appear in a particular technological theory. Any artifact is a combination of some features. This circumstance seems quite obvious, and the status of these signs causes disputes, whether they belong directly to artifacts or to people who design, manufacture and use technical devices.

And what do YOU think?

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FICTION REALITY

...23.09.1999, the space station NASA "Mars" started the mid-flight engines to stay at the orbit of the planet. Ten-month journey from Earth to Mars has ended. The station was programmed to follow all the instructions and, passing the reverse side of Mars, disappeared from the radar. Engineers were looking forward to her appearance on the other side. It took 10 minutes (waiting limit). Nothing. The Flight Operations Control Center became nervous, (not a joke - 10 years of difficult work !!!). They searched the Mars atmosphere but to no avail.

The space station had disappeared!
Turns out that the spaceship entered another orbit, flying too low. As a result, it was burned in the atmosphere. In fact, it took a lot of time to understand the cause of the incident: in a mathematical equation, the units of measurement have not been transfered from English to metric system of measurement, and a $ 300 million space station went to certain death. The ship was doomed... 

..We found a similar content,, where the man but not the space station, died during the teleportation from one point of space to another. And the reason was a small invisible programme, which is installed on all our computers...
So, if NASA engineers have studied the content, it is likely that the station would not have been lost.

What do you think? 
We will inform you, dear readers, about the unique designs and solutions that reveal the wonderful world of the potential technologies and the power of the human spirit ...

Best regards, author of the idea 
Vasyl Stepanchenko

...For thinking people ...

80% technologies that we will use in everyday life in the next 10 years have not even been invented yet. Surprisingly, thanks to the development of innovations, a business of trillions of dollars is already moving from stores built of brick and concrete into clicks and orders on the Internet, and the network is rapidly becoming the infrastructure of the new economy.

... The future is already here ...

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