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CHRONOLOGY OF THE INTERNET OF THINGS (IoT). ARTICLE 7

 
Era of the Internet of Things. Development chronology
 
Undoubtedly, the Internet of Things will connect artificial intelligence and the human mind with new, completely amazing and sometimes frightening abilities. Already, it is able to comprehend the movements between objects and among objects, including people, animals, vehicles, air currents, viruses and much more. It recognizes relationships and predicts algorithms that are too complex for the human mind and senses — for example, the state of an engine, bridge, or road; tendencies of physical processes occurring in the atmosphere and the Earth's crust.  The Internet of Things provides support for systems that operate without being monitored by humans and, what is already hard to believe, becomes smarter over time, changing its basic algorithm.  Let's imagine chronologically how the Internet of things became the property of mankind...
 
The end of the 1930s ...US military began using portable radios known as walkie-talkies. They weighed 11kg and worked within a radius of about 5 miles...
 
The early 1940s ...researchers at Bell Labs, including Amos Joel Jr., Ray Young and D. Ring, developed a system that allowed callers to talk and transmit data while moving. This technology provided connecting to different cell towers as the location changed...
 
1946 ...Bell Systems introduced the world's first mobile service in St. Louis, Missouri.  Initially, the offer attracted the attention of only 5,000 customers who made approximately 30,000 calls per week. This system was not particularly convenient (at least by today's standards).  Calls were made with the help of the operator, and in other areas it was impossible to use the service. Those phones weighed 36 kg and the service cost $15 per month, not including the cost of local calls (30-40 cents).  Only three subscribers could use the service at the same time...
 
1946 ... the writer and artist Chester Gould in his comics about Dick Tracy invented and drew a device for two-way radio communication, which was worn on the wrist like a clock. This device has become the main feature of the comic book and, of course,  aroused keen interest among the public...
 
1950 ...start of introducing the idea of using satellites in orbit of the Earth for positioning.  It is a fragment of a huge puzzle - the location of objects. Other key components include computing devices with management addresses and medium access (MAC addresses)  providing a unique identifier for the machine; IP addresses that locate the device on the Internet;  Ethernet address indicating the location of the device in the local area network (LAN); radio frequency tags and other similar sensors connecting the physical and virtual worlds...
 
The mid-1950s ... arising from packet networks the initial “Advanced Research and Development Management Network” turned from a very modest project into an IP protocol network (IP establishes a virtual channel between devices or systems).  Successful technical developments led many non-governmental organisations to demand that the Internet be open. A new era began after the US government decommissioned the network known as the National Science Foundation Network.  The foundation of global communication was laid. The first Internet connections were made mainly using a modem (via a telephone line) and the Mosaic browser, which was developed by Mark Andreessen (his company later became known as Netscape). The Mosaic browser was based on the earlier inventions of Tim Berners-Lee, a graduate of Oxford University who later worked at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. He invented the first web browser, Worldwide Web (later renamed Nexus), which was used in 1990 on the most powerful at that time NeXT computer...
 
 1957 ... the concept of a “technology implementation curve” was introduced into the scientific world.  Scientists from Iowa State University (USA) Joe Bohlen, George Beale, and Everett Rogers came up with the idea that any new product or solution moves along a relatively predictable path that looks like a Gaussian curve. The very first technology developers are called innovators, at the second stage pioneers appear, followed by the masses, and already by the masses - followers. Such a scheme was quickly adopted, and it still works, although at the beginning of the XXI century this life cycle accelerated significantly. In some cases (for example, the Internet of Things), this scheme fits into several months instead of several years...
 
 The mid-1970s ...the first 5.25-inch floppy disks appeared, and the amount of information stored increased to 110 kilobytes. The process of transferring data from one diskette to another was slow and inconvenient according to today's standards. In addition, the capabilities of these storage media were extremely limited.  Firstly, they were bulky.  The first discs are as much as 8 inches in diameter. In addition, only 80 kilobytes of data could be stored on floppy disks (this is approximately 40 pages of text without formatting)...  
 
The 1970-1980s ...is considered to be the beginning of the second wave of the digital revolution, which began with the spreading of computers. It is also called the beginning of the Internet of Things. According to its concept, technology makes old posts unnecessary but at the same time leads to the emergence of new activities. New technologies will affect absolutely everything from voting procedures in elections to visiting restaurants and ways to spend vacations. Obviously we cannot escape global techno centrism.  People will live in automated homes, they will drive smart cars on connected roads and do shopping in fully interactive stores (see article 6). Mankind will start using medications and preventive drugs that will fundamentally change the approach to health.  as V.I. Vernadsky wrote about it...
 
1980s ...it was a commonplace installing software from 10-20 floppy disks.  Such a process took some time (more than an hour), and it was impossible to do something else on the computer at that time.  The PC does not have modern multi-core processors and multitasking functionality. Although manufacturers came up with alternative means to increase the volume of stored data, including the popular zip archivers, the increase was mainly due to the fact that it is more convenient to manage data but not how to connect the systems to each other more effectively...
 
1973 ...Motorola engineer Martin Cooper made his first call from a modern mobile phone in the streets of New York.  This device, weighing a little more than a kilogram, with a battery for 20 minutes of charge, resembled a giant brick with an antenna sticking out of it.  Another ten years passed before mobile phones hit the consumer market. The first available mobile phone, Motorola DynaTAC, costs about $4,000...
 
1979 ...Japanese company "NTT" launches a cellular service in Japan...
 
1982 ...the amount of information stored on a diskette grew to 1.2 megabytes... 
 
The end of the 1980s ...3.5-inch drives store approximately 2.4 megabytes.  Such an amount of information was a breakthrough in the field of data storage in those times, now, it is completely unimaginable...
 
 1993  ...IBM company created a digital smartphone. Simon is introduced to the world: a mobile phone, a pager, a fax machine and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) all rolled into one. Simon offered a whole range of functions: calendar, address book, clock, calculator, notepad and e-mail.  It was equipped with a touch screen, touch pen, and QWERTY keyboard. Soon, the predecessors of modern devices appeared at Nokia, Erickson and other manufacturers...
 
 The beginning of the 1990s ...there appeared some  academic theoretical studies with “predictions” that  the combination of man and machine will give a completely new form of communication and interaction, which will contributed to the development of man-smartphone technology. And this reality is developing right in front of us...
 
 The beginning of the 1990s ...the concept of plug-in devices appeared.  At that time researchers at the Auto-ID Centre at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology began to reflect on the idea of creating such a system that would allow connecting devices in the physical world using sensors and wireless signals... 
 
The 1990s ...start of the widespread use of computer networks.  Cable and other local networks enabled organizations to exchange data within the company as well as with partners. However, the high cost and the closed nature of these networks, combined with the relatively low data transfer rate, limited the overall rate of use of this technology and their value was low. The vast majority of people (and devices) still did not have the ability to connect to such networks...
 
1995 ...the worldwide computer network Internet was put into commercial circulation...
 
1997 ...the Palm Pilot PDA appeared, and it raised a furore. It allowed you to store important personal data and it was synchronized with software on your computer. It was also possible to add applications and additional features. Some later models had a built-in modem, and they could be connected to the Internet.  For the first time, users have a viable alternative to paper...
 
1999 ...Kevin Ashton (one of the founders of the Auto-ID Centre) proposed the term Internet of Things!!! Ashton considered the possibility of using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags to change the Procter & Gamble consumer logistics chain management system, where he worked as a junior brand manager. In the future Ashton played a decisive role in determining global standards for radio frequency identification, and then he became an entrepreneur in the field of high technology and launched a number of his own start-ups...
 
2001 ...Doug Lainey, an analyst at Gartner, gave a short and intelligible definition of big data.  He stated that big data includes three main components: volume, speed, and diversity.  Volume refers to the amount of data, speed refers to how quickly data is generated and made available for use, and diversity means many different types of existing data. This is a reasonable concept, which is based on the collection, storage and use of data sets obtained from both structured and unstructured sources.  Big data usually exists in the form of message flows, text files, photos, video and audio recordings, social media. It is just a little bit to the "cloud"...
 
2006 ...Jeff Howe coined the term crowdsourcing by publishing the book “Crowdsourcing. The collective mind as a tool for business development". “Technological progress ...destroys the barriers that previously separated amateurs from professionals.  Amateurs and dilettantes suddenly got a market for the results of their activities, in which organizations connect to the hidden talents of people” - notes the author.  Howe sees crowdsourcing as a way to connect to knowledge and experience that were previously impossible to obtain and analyse...
 
2007 ...a historic market launch for a device called the Apple iPhone. Smartphones fell into the hands of the masses. Thanks to this, it became possible to communicate in real time between two points on the map using a device that can be held in your hand...
 
2008 ...Apple sells approximately 3.7 million iPhone devices...
 
2008 ...the Ushahidi software platform emerged, created by developers from Kenya, Ghana, South Africa, Malawi, the Netherlands and the USA. It allows volunteers around the world to map any event, from natural disasters to political unrest. The result is an intricate hybrid with real-time visualization, geolocation data and high-tech collective mapping features...
 
2009 ...FedEx Chairman Fred Smith said that in the future only robots would deliver goods.  Today in the United States work on the implementation of these plans, however, was suspended.  (In June 2014, the Federal Aviation Administration banned the use of commercial drones to deliver goods in the near future)...
 
2010 ...Google launches unmanned vehicle equipment using a 64-beam laser system.  Such a car (actually a test fleet of ten modified Audi, Lexus, and Toyota cars) crossed the steep and winding Lombard Street in San Francisco and moved over the Golden Gate Bridge...
 
2010 ...employees of European security services discovered the Stuxnet worm in the technical means of managing nuclear power plants, oil pipeline infrastructure and energy networks. Open evidence indicates that a sophisticated malware was developed by a private organization or government agency to attack Iran’s industrial infrastructure where about 30,000 computers were allegedly infected with this virus...
 
2010 ...Apple launches the iPad, which changed the stakes in the game and gave the green light to the Internet of Things.  By that time some manufacturers had already begun to produce smartphones and PDAs that could be connected to the Internet, but these devices were slow and bulky, and their functionality was extremely limited. Many of them just only synchronized calendars, contacts, and basic data.  And most of them disgustingly coped with any tasks other than voice calls...
 
2013 ...70% of the US population has a broadband Internet connection at home (for comparison, in 2000 - 3% of the US population)...
 
2013 ...Jeff Bezos, head of Amazon, announced that his company planned to start delivering goods using drones. Drones would fundamentally change entire industries. And if this idea turns out to be viable, robotic delivery will fundamentally change the way how consumers buy and use products. In principle, this will even change the approach to the processing of old products. 3D printing will make a further revolution. This technology is already in use in many industries...
 
2014 ...scientists Charit Perera, Arkady Zaslavsky and Dimitros Georgakopolus in a scientific article published in the article “Studies and practical exercises on types of communications” (Communications Surveys and Tutorials) of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers described that context-sensitive calculations  embodied in three types of interaction. The first interaction is personalization related to the user's preferences and the corresponding response of the system to them (for example, programming a home automation system). The second interaction is passive awareness of the context, when the system monitors the environment and offers the user appropriate options (for example, receiving a discount coupon at the entrance to the store).  The third interaction is active awareness of the context, when the system continuously monitors the state of the environment and circumstances and acts independently (for example, if the system detects a gas leak, it automatically notifies the appropriate service). Therefore, it can be assumed that when the Internet of Things gets stronger, we will see all this in reality, and a stream of new applications will rapidly enter into our lives...
 
2015 ...Pew Research Centre published a report based on a comprehensive study of the Internet. The data obtained from 2500 technical specialists were used in the scientific article Digital Life in 2025. Among all the predictions experts highlight several ones. The vast majority of respondents believe that the Internet of Things will lead to the appearance of a global, absorbing, invisible and comprehensive networked computer environment. It will rely on smart sensors, cameras, software, databases and powerful data centres. Inside this space extended reality will transform the information of the physical world into virtual data displayed on wearable and implantable devices. Physical objects will be massively tagged to collect data that we once could not perceive. All this will lead to incredibly significant changes in society, politics, many industries, education and public administration...
 
2014 ...the number of smartphones sold in the world exceeds 500 million copies...
 
2017 ...approximately 1.9 billion smartphones are used in the world.  Each of them has a built-in chipset that captures data, voice, video, audio, motion, location and much more.  In addition, the smartphone is easily connected to another device.  It also serves as a remote control and a control panel that displays personal media information and news feed.  Smartphones receive notifications of events, they store boarding passes and electronic tickets, install payment systems.  All these applications connect to social networks, and use crowdsourcing to create new ways to manage and analyse events in the real world...
 
2019 ...according to the Swedish telecommunications company Ericsson, the number of smartphones sold worldwide will exceed 5.6 billion...
 
2020 ...according to the predictions of International Data Corporation, by this time, 40 zettabytes of data will exist in the world!!!  (For reference: 1000 terabytes = 1 petabyte, 1000 petabytes = 1 Exabyte, 1000 Exabyte = 1 zettabyte. About 250 billion DVDs will fit in one zettabyte that is more than 35 years of continuous viewing of high-quality video). This is approximately 6 terabytes for every person living today - or 3 million books per capita. It is not surprising that various microchips and sensors as well as a person with a smartphone or tablet generate a huge amount of data. In general, data volumes increase annually by approximately 50-60%, and mobile traffic grows by approximately 61% per year according to Cisco Systems...
 
 New information appears every day, but we grow stupid?
 

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FICTION REALITY

...23.09.1999, the space station NASA "Mars" started the mid-flight engines to stay at the orbit of the planet. Ten-month journey from Earth to Mars has ended. The station was programmed to follow all the instructions and, passing the reverse side of Mars, disappeared from the radar. Engineers were looking forward to her appearance on the other side. It took 10 minutes (waiting limit). Nothing. The Flight Operations Control Center became nervous, (not a joke - 10 years of difficult work !!!). They searched the Mars atmosphere but to no avail.

The space station had disappeared!
Turns out that the spaceship entered another orbit, flying too low. As a result, it was burned in the atmosphere. In fact, it took a lot of time to understand the cause of the incident: in a mathematical equation, the units of measurement have not been transfered from English to metric system of measurement, and a $ 300 million space station went to certain death. The ship was doomed... 

..We found a similar content,, where the man but not the space station, died during the teleportation from one point of space to another. And the reason was a small invisible programme, which is installed on all our computers...
So, if NASA engineers have studied the content, it is likely that the station would not have been lost.

What do you think? 
We will inform you, dear readers, about the unique designs and solutions that reveal the wonderful world of the potential technologies and the power of the human spirit ...

Best regards, author of the idea 
Vasyl Stepanchenko

...For thinking people ...

80% technologies that we will use in everyday life in the next 10 years have not even been invented yet. Surprisingly, thanks to the development of innovations, a business of trillions of dollars is already moving from stores built of brick and concrete into clicks and orders on the Internet, and the network is rapidly becoming the infrastructure of the new economy.

... The future is already here ...